The scientific hypothesis is the basic part of scientific method. It is something better than any wild guess but not a well established theory. It is in fact a well educated guess on the basis on observation. The scientific definition of hypothesis is given as
It is statement having science explanation that predicts the result using prior knowledge and observation which has to be examined by performing the experiment. In fact it’s a hint for a particular well established theory.
A research hypothesis is the hypothesis used to test the relationship between two or more variables. It is created by the researchers after predicting the outcome of their research. If it stands so during the testing time then it gradually becomes a theory or model.
Research hypothesis example: Einstein's general relativity, Newton’s law and so many.
Developing a specific, testable hypothesis in research is a most tricky part of research in any research paper. Slight mistakes while creating a hypothesis would ruin the whole design of research. To come out of the confusion you need to do use a systematic method of hypothesis. While performing a research first select a topic then gather out the information and analyze it. Then generate out the doubts through questions and try to answer by using hints.
After doing so to form the hypothesis you need to follow the below steps:
1) Determine the variables in any relation
2) Create out the general hypothesis
3) Open out with the direction
4) Get peculiar with the concept
5) Check out whether its testable
6) Give out your hypothesis
7) Then find out if any null hypothesis is present
8) Finally test the hypothesis using experiment.
These are different types of hypothesis:
1) Simple Hypothesis
2) Complex Hypothesis
3) Directional Hypothesis
4) Non-directional Hypothesis
5) Null Hypothesis
6) Associative and Causal Hypothesis
Simple Hypothesis - It gives the relationship between a single independent variable and single dependent variable.
Example: Excessive smoking causes lung cancer. Here Excessive smoking is independent variable whereas lung cancer is dependent variable.
Complex Hypothesis - It predicts the relationship between two or more independent variable and two or more dependent variables.
Excessive smoking and intoxication leads to cancer, chest infections, tightens certain body muscles and reduces the bone density. Here there are two dependent variables and many independent variables.
Directional Hypothesis - It is derived from theory. Its shows researcher is intellectual and is committed to a particular outcome. Its nature can also be predicted using the relationship between variables.
Example: For those children aged 4 years given with daily supplements of vitamins over a 5 years period are having higher IQ levels than children not given those supplements. Here it not only shows the effect but also the direction of effect i.e, increase in IQ.
Non-directional Hypothesis - It is used when there’s less or no theory. It may imply impartiality which does not concentrate on the direction of the relationship.
Example: There is difference in recovery between children who are nursed in the individual side rooms in a hospital and children who are nursed in an open ward with other children. Here it’s stated that there is a difference but there is no prediction regarding the direction it might take. Children in side rooms may recover faster or slower than those in open ward.
Null Hypothesis - It gives the statement contrary to working hypothesis. It is a negative statement and you find no relationship between dependent and independent variable here. It is denoted as 'HO". Null hypothesis can be simple or complex and directional or non directional.
Example: For a hypothesis the lemon plant has higher growth rate in the compost rather than soil. The Null hypothesis is Lemon plant do not have higher growth rate in the compost rather than soil.
Associative Hypothesis - The hypothesis which occurs when one variable changes other also does so whereas Causal hypothesis proposes the cause and effect interaction between two or more variable.
Hypothesis testing is a method used by the statisticians to test statistical hypothesis. It is assumed that certain population would give a certain outcome in the experiment in hypothesis testing. It not possible to test the whole population so random sample of data are collected and tested. If these samples are consistent with the statistical hypothesis the hypothesis is accepted else it is rejected.
Hypothesis testing has to be done using following steps:
1) Put forward the hypothesis
2) Formulate the data
3) Analyze the sample data
4) Give out the conclusion.