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Scientific Methods

The science is not just a collection of facts or ideas, unlike it is a subject that can be explored by lots of experiments and keen observation. It needs lot of scientific thinking to find phenomena behind any action, facts or ideas of nature. The scientific thinking is not only limited to a scientist but can be done even by any common man. You may think what is this scientific method? Why do scientists use the scientific method even when the fact is known to all? Lets see answer to all these queries.


How Does It Work?

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Scientific method definition: The scientific method gives the stepwise representation of how the conclusion is proved. It captures the main point of testing the logic point with experiments and getting evidence behind any hypothesis. It shows more accurately how the science is actually summarized. 

To do the scientific method there are some systematic steps which we call parts of the scientific method:

1) Observation and Questioning.
2) Performing the background research.
3) Preparing a hypothesis.
4) Experimenting hypothesis.
5) Analyzing the data and finding the conclusion.
6) Communicating the conclusion with people. 

The first step in scientific method is observation. The scientific method observation is a significant job in scientific method. Then you come to an assumption what we call hypothesis. To test out how this hypothesis works the experiment is designed. Then perform the experiment and test the hypothesis. Whatever is the result got by the experiment decides whether to accept the hypothesis or not and the conclusion is communicated. The scientific method in order when performed gives a clear picture of fact different from misconception.

Let’s see the scientific method example using steps:

1) Observation and Questioning: Chemical energy is present all around us. Is it possible to convert chemical energy to electrical energy?

2) Performing the background research: If we study chemistry each vegetable carries a acidic liquid like brinjal, lady finger, potato, tomato etc. Let’s choose potato out of it.

3) Preparing a hypothesis: Let’s try to convert the chemical energy to electrical energy using potato as chemical component (acidic liquid)

4) Experimenting the hypothesis:  Let’s take 3 potatoes and connect the wire to it such that the copper and zinc electrodes are dipped in potato and other end it connected to the bulb. The copper and zinc electrodes when dipped in an acidic liquid like potato it produces electricity which make even bulb light to glow.

5) Analyzing the data and finding the conclusion: The conclusion is that we can get the electricity using any chemical component. 

6) Communicating the conclusion with people: The result is communicated due to which modern batteries are brought into existence.


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We have already understood what is scientific method. Let us try to find out why is the scientific method important?

The scientific method of research minimizes any pre conceived opinions in any experiment. It filters the facts from the personal or cultural belief with a solid proof. Even the smart person can't do the bias if the methodology is implemented. It provides the standard approach to any investigation. But still there is a chance of undergoing mistakes due to the misconceptions. Sometimes they may take hypothesis as an explanation without actually performing any experiment, or there might be any errors which are being ignored since they do not support the assumption.

Example: George Mendel developed his research on inheritance of traits in pea plants had some drawbacks in his theory as there was an error called confirmation bias. Confirmation bias means tendency to see the data that supports the hypothesis ignoring that data which does not support so. This error has led to questioning even now for his theory and experimental method he used even though the experiment was successful for a sample of data.

Hence many times it happens that if the scientific method works out even after repeated experiments for a large sample of data. The hypothesis becomes a theory. The most significant thing in the scientific method is not only to prove a theory as right but also sometimes to prove it as wrong if it really doesn't work out well in any sort of experiment so that the theory could be thought either to be discarded or modified together.

Controls & Variables

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Scientists design any equipment to find out the cause and effect behind any concept, this is called as experimenting. Actually they design the experiment such way that the change in one parameter makes other to vary as per the design. These changing quantities are known as variables. The variables are of three kinds - independent, dependent and controlled.

The independent variable is the one that varies on its own and does not depend on any other parameter. The dependent variable is that which depends on independent variable for any change. The moment the independent variable changes the dependent variable also reacts by changing. While controlled variables are those which remains constant throughout the experiment. It should be carefully observed that and even checked often whether the variable is constant each time.

Example: If we take a faucet when we press it more, the space gets wider the water quantity flow increases. The water pressure is dependent variable whereas density and length water flows is dependent variable. If we want to intake controlled variable in this concept lets control any variable like water pressure is held constant over entire experiment you could get to know how the other variables are varying relative to each other.
More topics in Scientific Methods
History Of Science Hypothesis
Scientific Investigation Contributions Of Scientists
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