The elements are subdivided into molecules which further divided into atoms. The atoms for long considered to be indivisible but with the discovery of the sub atomic particle, like electrons and protons, it was understood that there were more smallest and fundamental particles then the atom. The electron is one of the elementary particles and is the first generation Leptons.
The protons and neutrons, on the other hand, are the other elementary particles and they falls in the category of Hadrons.
The hadrons are the particles which are composed of quarks. The quarks are the elementary particles and considered to be constituent of the matter existing in the nature.
The hadrons are classified into two families;
The mesons are made of two quarks (one quark and one anti quark) held together by the strong force which binds them. The example of mesons is Kaon. The baryons are made of three quarks (two quarks and one anti quark) which are held together by the strong sub atomic forces. The known examples of the baryons are protons and neutrons. Both the meson and baryons, that is hadrons have corresponding anti particles also known as anti meson and anti baryons. The mesons have very short life time, the longest existing meson live just for few hundredths of seconds. The baryons in comparison are more stable.
The word Hadrons refers to the large or massive in Greek. The Hadrons are made of three quarks and hence they are termed as large particles. The important point here to note is that these quarks are held together by the strong sub atomic forces. The hadrons are considered to be the by-products of the big bang. They are produced along with the anti hadrons after the big bang but with time the hadrons outnumbers the anti hadrons.
The hadron particle collider is a device which simulates the conditions which happens just before the big bang, where the charged particles, like quarks, collide at very high energy and produces a big bang. Due to this collision the quarks combines to form hadrons and anti hadrons. The Hadron Particle collider is very difficult to manufacture, even for experiemental purposes.
The idea to assemble hadron particle collider was started within the European Union countries. The hadron particle collider is capable of simulating the conditions of the big bang. The current Large Hadron Collider facility is owned by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research).Small Hadron Collider : The small hadron collider are the conceptual device which are capable of producing the high energy by just accelerating the particles in the collider. It is presumed that if the experiment of Large Hadron Collider is successful than it may be possible to produce Small Hadron Collider, similar to the nuclear reactors, which are capable of self sustaining the reaction and produces high energy without requirement of large initial energy to accelerate the Hadron particles.
The hadron particle accelerator is also known as Large Hadron Collider or in short as LHC. The LHC is situated in Geneva in a tunnel which measures 27 kilometers and dug as deep as 175 meters beneath the earth’s surface. The facility is situated near the Swiss – French border. It is supported internationally by grants from different countries, the major stakeholder being the United Kingdom. This facility was constructed from 1998 to 2008 and is operational since then. The LHC was commissioned to unearth few of physics unsolved mysteries. The LHC is costliest setup for the experimental purposes. In the LHC the hadron particles like the protons and the neutrons are accelerated and collided at very high energy. Due to this collision some of the unstable particles and the large amount of energy are released.
The LHC is circular in shape and is helium is used to cool it. The reason for cooling is that the amount of energy released in the collision is very high. The LHC has super conducting magnets which controls the path of the accelerated particles, which are accelerated to collide with each other. The LHC uses huge power, in the range of Teravolts, to collide the particles at very high energy. The current LHC record is the collision of beams of particle with each beam is of 3.5TeV power.
The LHC experiment could also unearth how the SUN functions and how a nuclear fusion reaction could be self sustaining in the SUN. The previous attempts to build a self sustaining nuclear fusion reactor are all gone awry. The LHC is the fresh and most significant attempt to not only to unearth the hypothetical theories of physical and particle science but also to find the non conventional and green fuel which is required for generations to come.
The LHC itself is an upgrade to the Large Positron collider which was housed in the same facility. The facility was initially built between 1983 – 1988 as a Large positron collider and consequently converted to the LHC starting 1998. The first LHC experiment took place in 2008 and as the fate may be the first incident or accident occurred almost during the same time in 2009. The LHC was shut for few months before the start of the experiment once again.
The below shown is the simulated picture of the LHC situated near French Swiss border. As cann be seen from the pictures there are several facilities in the LHC like Alic, Atlas, etc. These are the areas where labs, experimental setup and scientist are housed.
The picture depicts the tunnel in the circular shape covering the entire 27 Km buried 175 m deep under the earth surface.
The Super Hadron collider is the proposed progressive upgrade to the LHC. Currently, the LHC is the highest energy particle accelerator made by man. This upgrade would happen at least after 10 year of the operational life of the LHC. This will provide LHC more luminous power to see the particles which are very rare to observe, even with the LHC. The reason for this is that these particles have the mean life time of the order of the millionth and billionth of the seconds. The SHLC could have the luminosity of 1035 per cm-square per second.