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# Magnetic Force

The magnets are basically meant to attract other magnets or magnetic matters like iron objects. We could observe the force which exists between two magnets when we hold the like poles together. These observed forces at a distance effects are mainly due to magnetic forces which act around the vicinity of any magnet is called its magnetic field.  The forces which act around the magnet are vector in form and have magnitude.

The deflecting force that we observe in magnets is quite different than the forces we observe in other interactions. The forces that we see in gravitational force that exist between different masses or the electric forces that exists between charges and of course the magnetic forces existing between magnetic poles are all deflecting forces. The forces that actually work between charged particles does not act along the line which joins the source of these interactions but instead work perpendicular to both the stream of electrons as well as the magnetic field.

A magnet could attract an iron pin or help in turning the compass magnetic needle. We could observe the magnetic force in space around a magnet which helps in moving these magnetic substances.

The magnetism is said to be induced by the magnetic field of the permanent magnet and the result of this induction is the attraction of iron piece towards the magnet. The magnetic field around any magnetic material is the region where forces act on other magnetic materials or magnets by inducing the magnetism in them.

The force which acts in a magnetic field are nothing but the Ferro matter inside the magnet aligned in a certain manner and that helps in re arranging the field lines in a particular manner.

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## Definition

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The magnetic force whether its attraction or repulsion arise due to the electrical charged particles motion which exists for any moving charged particles in a magnetic field.

The magnetic force existing on a moving charge is in the direction at right angles to the velocity and also the direction of the magnetic field vicinity.

As the natural forces applied between two magnets can either be attractive or repulsive that is the direction of magnetic force can be either way and hence it is considered as a vector quantity.

The magnetic field points in a different directions at different places around a magnet. By placing a magnetic compass in the magnetic field the direction of magnetic lines could be plotted and it shows a loop formation on either side of the magnet while showing a force line on each terminals. As the compass has two magnetic poles and the forces of magnet will act on both poles which helps in putting up the lines of force.

## Right Hand Rule

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The right hand rule gives us an idea about the direction of current, the magnetic field and the direction of force. The right hand thumb rule shows the thumb for magnetic force direction, the middle finger will show direction of magnetic field while the index finger will give direction of conductors current. Right Hand Rule Number 1: When we need to find the direction of field from an electric current.

a) We have to place the thumb of right hand along the direction of the current

b) By curling the fingers we get the direction of the field as the filed lines help in getting the current encircled.

Right Hand Rule Number 2: When we need to find the direction of the magnetic force on a moving charge.

a) Need to place the hand right along the velocity

b) The fingers are curled in the direction of field

c) If the charge is positive, the magnetic force on charge is parallel to the thumb and if the charge is negative the magnetic force is in the opposite direction

## Calculating Magnetic Force

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Magnetic force is one where the moving charges start exerting on each other.

FB = q v × B

Where FB is the magnetic force, q is the charge of particle in question, v is the particles velocity and finally the B is the magnetic field.

We know that electricity is the type of force of charge that exerts on each other. Irrespective of the movement of the charges the force exists and hence we sometimes call it as electrostatic force. In comparison the magnetic force is electro dynamic in nature. When these two combines and effects a charged body and we have Lorentz law.

F = q (E + v × B)

We could discuss and calculate the force on a magnetic dipole due to the non uniform magnetic field. The magnetic potential changes as and when we move a magnetic dipole from a region of low magnetic field to a region where the magnetic field is higher.

## Magnetic Force Between Two Wires

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Two conductors carrying current in the same direction attract each other; they also tend to repel each other if the currents flow in opposite direction.

Force in a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field shows that two parallel current carrying exert magnetic forces on each other and the force depends upon the direction in which the current flows.  The force also depends upon the distance between the conductors.

The force between any nearby conductors could be quite large and the high tension cables are always carried on massive structures to withstand the force which is created. The buzzing sound that we get to hear near any transformer or high tension cable is due to mechanical vibration of nearby conductors.

The magnetic force in between conductors is the basis for Standard international definition for ampere and thereby the coulomb.

## Examples

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The examples of magnetic force are applied in the following electrical items.

• The most common of all electrical items where the magnetic force is applied is in a motor which is used in almost all electrical gadgets like fan, grinder, water sump motor etc.

• The magnetic force major application is again seen in Maglev trains where it levitates on the track and literally floats on track and is held on track with the help of strong magnetic field.

• The roller coaster which makes those high rotation turns is mainly because of strong magnetic field which helps in keeping the wheels on balance.

• While trekking the main equipment one need to carry along with is the magnetic compass which will help in getting the direction correct.
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