We know that everything around us take some space like a chair, a computer, a carrot etc. because all objects contain their individual mass. Mass is the weight of any object but it is not similar to weight. It is shown how much any object weight. Thus, all objects that take space or volume and have some amount of mass are matter. Thus everything is matter around us. All objects have their particular shape, size, and volume wither its solid or liquid or gas. All comes in the class of matter.
According to it, the main three states of matter are given that are solid, fluid, and gas. All have their unique properties by which they can be easily identified. The solid state contains its definite shape and volume while liquid has a definite volume not shape while the gases have nothing neither definite shape nor size. These states can be changed from an estate to another state due to change the temperature condition. Let’s discuss more about matter, changing of states, and properties of different states.
State of matter is defined in terms of the phase transitions which indicate the change in structure and properties. Solids, liquids and gases all are made up of microscopic particles. The behavior of all these particles also varies in three phases.
The Three States of Matter can be explained on the basis of inter atomic and intermolecular forces. A Matter can exist in three states namely,
A Solid has a definite shape, size and volume but a Liquid possesses a definite volume only and not a definite shape whereas a Gas has neither a definite shape and nor a definite volume.
All matter in this universe is composed of innumerable particles which
are called as atoms. All the atoms for any given element are similar and
identical to each other. Atoms with different elements will have
different properties. The chemical reactions that are involved in the
combination of the atoms are responsible for the existence of this
When the elements participate in the reactions with other
elements form the compounds. The elements react in a defined whole
number ratio. In this universe there are different kinds of matter. The
main states of matter present in this universe are :
We could see solid to liquid phase transformation, liquid to gases phase transformation and gases to solid phase transformation in our day to day life. In this we could see changing of matter from one state to another.
Let us see the following example for this:
- When water is given heat at a certain
temperature it starts getting vaporized. This takes place at constant
temperature known as the boiling point. It is nearly 1000 C
at normal pressure. Water can also be vaporized at a lower
temperature by lowering pressure.
- Ice can be converted into water at a
fixed temperature known as melting point which is 00 C at ordinary pressure. If the pressure is increased ice can melt at a lower temperature than 00
C. However, at a given pressure the temperature of the substance
remains constant until the change of state is complete.
- Similarly steam
can be condensed into water and water can be freezed into ice at the
Atoms are the smallest unit of matter. These atoms combine together to form a molecule. The matter states depends on the molecule arrangement.
Based on the arrangement of molecules the matter is classified into three types:In a solid, the intermolecular forces are very strong. They are dominant over the thermal motion of molecules hence the molecules are held at fixed positions rigidly. Hence the solid has a definite shape and volume.The liquids have the intermolecular separation quite smaller than that of the gas and the molecules in the liquid are also in random motion but much more slowly than those of a gas. The molecules are neither permanently in equilibrium nor they are free to move, thus liquids have definite volume but no definite shape.
A gas has the molecules apart and the average distance between them is about 10 times their diameter. Thus the gas molecules are free to move anywhere and keep colliding with each other and wall of the container. Thus gas does not have a definite shape and volume.
There are Four States of Matter
We have already dealt with three states above, let us study about the fourth state of matter called Plasma.
Plasma is a substance which is similar to that of gas in which some portion of the particles inside are ionized. The presence of non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Under the influence of the magnetic field, plasma forms structures such as beams, filaments and double layers.
The Five States of Matter
- Bose-Einstein condensate.
A Bose-Einstein condensate is a state of matter observed by both Bohr and Einstein.
Explanation of Bohr-Einstein condensate:
At ordinary temperature gas will moving in random direction. These gas molecules will be moving with different speed depending on the energy they posses. Example: Molecules moving will higher speed will be possessing higher energy than other molecules which are moving with the lower speed.
If we cool these molecules we could see that the atoms slow down. Bohr and Einstein predicted that if a gas made of indistinguishable atoms is sufficiently chilled, a significant fraction of the particles will settle to the lowest energy. That is, atoms can be forced into their lowest energy state at a temperature above absolute zero. When particles reach this state, they form a new form of matter called a Bose-Einstein condensate.
There are Six States of Matter
- Bose-Einstein condensate
- Fermionic Condensate.
We can even classify the states of matter into 12 types namely:
- Super fluid
- Super solid
- Bose-Einstein condensate
- Fermionic condensate
- String-net liquid
- Super-critical fluid
- Degenerate matter.