Mars is the fourth planet in the solar system followed by Mercury, Venus and earth and is the second smallest planet in the solar system. It is a red planet containing iron oxide in the surface giving it the reddish appearance. Hence is named after Roman God of war. It is a terrestrial planet that has thin atmosphere made of carbon dioxide and its surface appears with lots of impact craters.
• Mars is the fourth planet from the sun seen in our solar system also known as red planet. It was named after Roman God of war as it appeared reddish.
• It is also the fourth planet and even the last terrestrial planet in solar system which is at the distance of 227,940,000 km from the sun.
• It has equatorial diameter of 6,792 km which is just 53% of earth diameter and polar diameter of 6,752 km.
• It's mass is 6.42 $\times$ 1023 kg which is only 10.7 % of earth's mass. It is composed of carbon dioxide 95.97%, 1.93% argon, 1.89 % nitrogen, 0.146 % oxygen and 0.0557 % carbon monoxide.
• Mars atmosphere and the layer which surrounds it, is mostly made out of carbon dioxide and hence its very dusty. It has even methane traces in it.
• It spin on an axis. This spinning creates night and day. It completes one spin in slightly more than 24 hours. Hence a day on mars is almost the same as that the day on earth
• Mars orbits around the sun in about 687 earth days that means a year on mars is about twice as long as a year on earth (1.9 years).
• Like other planets, mars also has moons revolving around it. There are actually two moons revolving around it named as phobos and Deimos discovered in 1877, by Asaph Hall.
The Mars has four seasons similar to earth, but the duration for the two seasons is quite long compared to the other two. The spring is of 7 months, summer 6 months, rain fall 5.3 months and lastly the winter is too short just 4 months. In winter, it is so cold that atmosphere at the north and south poles freezes, and the white caps can be seen from earth. In spring, dust stroms develop. Some are strong enough that the whole planet cannot be seen through the dust and sand for weeks, or even months. The mars temperature varies from 68o to -220o F. Hence the average would be -67o F.
Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of silicates, methane traces, metals, and other elements which has a rocky layer. Like Earth, Mars is also a layered planet that has a central core made up of metallic iron and nickel then surrounded by a less dense, mantle of silicate and finally the crust. Due to the iron oxidation on its surface, the planet appears red in color. It is composed of 95.97% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon, 1.89 % nitrogen, 0.146 % oxygen and 0.0557 % carbon monoxide. Based on the study besides silicon ad oxygen, other abundant available metals are iron, aluminium, magnesium, calcium and potassium.
Internal Structure of Mars
Any mission to mars will require highly reliable habitation systems to keep the crew healthy and productive in the deep-space environment during missions that lasts upto 1,100 days. If we are in to the Mars, the sky would look pale orange with clouds are of either light blue or white. Wearing a space suit and an oxygen tank is must as the atmosphere is made of carbon dioxide which is deadly to humans.Mars habitat is a place where the humans try to live in the mars. It has some characteristics which the astronaut should adapt like having no oxygen, extreme cold conditions, very low ressure, high radiation etc. Hence alot of equipments and mangements should be taken care of, while planning for it like exercise systems, long duration consumables storage, environmental monitoring systems, fire safety should be carried in high-oxygen environments, radiation sheilding and highly reliable avionics with long period of dormancy.
To explore the mars the ISS, NASA and our international and commercial partners have begun activities to evolve ISS habitation systems that meets future deep-space mission needs. With multiple crewed Orion missions to cislunar space over the next decade, NASA will have many opportunities to use these habitations systems, and evolve them to a deep-space habitation capability for future Mars missions. This approach allows us to develop the performance of habitation system and its reliability in the deep-space environment which should be done prior to a long journey to Mars.