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The biosphere is a thin cover of the planet Earth. In this layer life exists. This layer includes, lowermost part of atmosphere, hydrosphere and a portion of uppermost lithosphere. The living organism appeared in this layer around 4 billion years ago. The metazoan life (the first multicellular organisms belonging to the kingdom of animals) is more than half a billion years old, and complex terrestrial ecosystems have been around for more than 300 million years. Many species have exerted enormous influence on the biosphere's character and productivity, none more so than oceanic cyanobacteria and the large trees of the tropical, temperate and boreal forests. 



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Biosphere includes all the hydrosphere, troposphere to the height of 30 km and the upper part of the Earth's crust down to a depth of 2-3 km, for living bacteria still may be found at this depth in the underground waters and in the oil. It is an open thermodynamic system that exists with a permanent flow of solar energy since the very beginning of the Earth's history. 

According to Vernadsky, the biosphere is an external Earth cover, the 'scope of life'. He also noted that this definition is not complete. The vernadsky's biosphere includes
  • living matter
  • 'biogeneric matter',that is, organic and mineral substances, created by living matter 
  • 'bioinert matter', created by living organisms together with inorganic nature 


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The important facts related to the biosphere is given below:

  • Biosphere is the global ecological system on the Earth surface, which contains all living organisms and their mutual relationships.
  • It covers almost full space of the Earth.
  • If it stretches, it includes the deep oceans and highest mountain peaks.
  • Microorganisms like bacteria are also included in this biosphere.
  • Biosphere is classified into various bioms.


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The biosphere is defined as the zone where both living organisms and the products of their activities are found. So it plays an important role to maintain the ecosystems, that is the life of organisms and their mutual interactions. And biosphere is very important to regulate the climate. Changes in the biosphere results the changes in climate. The biosphere is an important reservoir in the carbon cycle. 

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