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Matter

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Matter is something that has some mass and occupies space. Every matter around us ha its own size, shape, color and texture. So there lies a query what this matter has in it? These matter has large number of atoms which build it up. Atoms are the smallest particle that exist in nature. Matter are of three types- solids, liquid and gaseous.This page gives a lot more about matter, lets go through it.

 

Definition

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Matter is everything that makes up our environment and whose smallest unit is an atom. It has inertia, consists of mass and occupies physical space. An atom is made up of positively charged protons, negatively charged electrons and neutral neutrons.Matter have three states namely 

i)
Solid
ii) Liquid
iii) Gaseous.

Properties of Matter

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The basic properties of matter are it is made up of mass and it has a volume occupying space. The properties of matter can be divided into two categories:

i) Extensive properties – It is that property which depends on the quantity of matter in a body. For example mass, volume, calories etc.

ii) Intrinsic properties – It is that property which is independent of the quantity of matter present in the body. It rather depends on the type of matter the substance is made up of. For example density, hardness, melting point, boiling point, color etc.

Classification of Matter

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Matter can be classified into three different types namely:
i) Elements – It is made up of atoms or molecules of a similar kind. Atom is the smallest particle of matter, for example, neon and when two or more atoms are chemically bonded they form molecules, for example, oxygen. Elements cannot be broken down into simpler particles either by physical or by chemical means.
ii) Compounds – It is made up of atoms or molecules of dissimilar elements chemically bonded together. Compounds can be broken down into simpler particles by chemical means and the properties of the broken part are completely different from its parent compound. A compound made up of elements always maintains a fixed ratio. For example two molecules of hydrogen reacts with one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules of water.
iii) Mixtures – It is made up of two or more different types of elements or compounds which are bonded as well as could be separated by physical means. Every part of it retains its individual properties. It could further be divided into two types:

      a) Heterogeneous Mixtures – Composition of matter is not uniform throughout. E.g. Gravel, soil etc.
      b) Homogeneous Mixtures (solutions) – Composition of matter is uniform throughout. E.g. Tea, Kool Aid etc.

States of Matter

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There are mainly three states of matter-Solid, Liquid and Gas

Properties Solid Liquid Gas
Shape Solids have a definite shape Liquids do not have a definite shape. It takes up the shape of the container in which it is kept Gas does not have a definite shape. It takes up the shape of the entire space kept in
Volume Solids have a definite volume Liquids have a definite volume Gas do not have a definite volume
Effect of rise in temperature With the rise in temperature there is small expansion. On reaching the melting point solids change into liquids and at sublimation directly changes from solid to gas With the rise in temperature there is small expansion. On reaching the vaporization point liquid changes to gas and at freezing point liquid changes to solid state With the rise in temperature there is large expansion. On reaching the deposition point gas changes to solids and at condensation point gas changes to liquid state
Kinetic energy Low More kinetic energy compared to solids Highest
Malleability Malleable Non malleable Non malleable
Ductility Ductile Non ductile Non ductile
Compressible Cannot be compressed into smaller volume with increase in pressure Cannot be compressed into smaller volume with increase in pressure Can be compressed into smaller volume with increase in pressure
Intermolecular space The molecules are closely packed having very less intermolecular space The intermolecular space is larger in liquids compared to that of solids The intermolecular space is largest in gas compared to that of solids
Intermolecular attraction Strong intermolecular forces of attraction holding the molecules firmly in position Weak intermolecular forces of attraction as a result of which the molecules freely slide over each other, hence making it viscous in nature Weakest intermolecular forces of attraction as a result of which the molecules are free to move in any direction
Example Gold, silver etc Water, oil etc Oxygen, hydrogen etc

Plasma is considered to be the fourth state of matter. It is hot ionized gas having almost an equal number of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions. It is highly affected by both electrical and magnetic field. For example, noble gases are used as glowing tubes my ionizing it with the help of electricity.

Physical Properties of Matter

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Physical properties of matter are those which can be measured and observed keeping the composition and chemical nature of the matter unchanged. Few examples of physical property are as follows:

i) Length, Width and Height
ii) Volume, Density and Mass
iii) Melting and Boiling Point
iv) Malleability

Chemical Properties of Matter

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Chemical properties of matter are characteristics of a substance which becomes visible or could be observed when the substance chemically reacts or goes through a chemical change. Few examples of chemical property are as follows:

i) Flammability – It is that property of an object that determines whether it will burn or not

ii) Heat – The amount of energy taken in or released when an objects burns in air

iii) Oxidation – Gaining of oxygen atoms or losing of hydrogen atoms is called oxidation. For e.g. Apple turning brown when its is cut and left in open air for some time

iv) Reduction – Gaining of electrons in a chemical reaction is called reduction. E.g. rust in which the oxygen is reduced

v) 
Hydrolysis – It is the type of chemical reaction where water is one of the reactants and it is broken down. E.g. digestion of food

vi) Radioactivity – The emission of radioactive particles from the atom resulting in instability of the nuclei is said to be radioactivity 

vii) Half-life – The time taken for any substance to reduce to its half value by decay is called half life.

viii) Toxicity – The extent to which a substance can poison or damage other substances is called toxicity. E.g. lead, mercury.
 
ix) Decomposition – The process by which any compound breaks down into its constituent elements or compounds is called decomposition. E.g. digestion of food in our body.

x) Fermentation – It is the method by which sugar is converted into acids, gases or alcohols. E.g. baking of cake using yeast.
More topics in Matter
Properties of Matter Atomic Structure
Properties of Solids Properties of Liquids
Properties of Gases
Related Topics
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